Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD)
Many deadly diseases can now be prevented through vaccines. To report a confirmed or suspect case of a Vaccine Preventable Disease, please contact the Hays County Epidemiologist.
Chickenpox (Varicella): A virus that causes an itchy rash. In unvaccinated individuals, red-raised spots appear that turn into itchy, fluid filled spots. Vaccinated individuals who develop chickenpox generally have very mild symptoms: non-fluid filled spots, shorter duration and low or no fever. Vaccines: Var, & MMRV.
Diphtheria: Diphtheria is a bacterium that causes a buildup in the back of the throat, making it hard to breath. There are different vaccines that prevent diphtheria: DTaP, Tdap, DT and Td.
Haemophilus influenza, Type b (Hib): Hib is a bacteria that lives in the nose and throat and can cause severe bacterial infections including: meningitis (swelling of the brain covering and spinal cord), blood infections, pneumonia, arthritis and other infections. Vaccine: Hib.
Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver. The inflammation can be caused by alcohol, drugs and viruses that attack the liver. The most common types of hepatitis in the United States are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is generally passed through contaminated food. Hepatitis B can lead to liver damage and death. Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood exposures. Hepatitis B can also pass from mother to child (vertical transmission). Hepatitis C is the most common blood borne infection in the United States. Vaccines: Hep A, Hep B.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV): The main purpose of the HPV vaccine is to prevent cancer, the vaccine protects against strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer in women. Vaccines: HPV 4 or HPV 2 recommended for girls and HPV 4 for boys starting at age 9.
Measles (Rubeola): This virus is very contagious but not very common in the United States. The symptoms include rash, fever, and cough or runny nose or watery eyes. Vaccines: measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV).
Meningococcal Disease “Bacterial Meningitis”: This bacterium often causes meningitis, but can also cause bloodstream infections, pneumonia, joint infections and other illnesses. The bacteria are spread through coughing and sneezing. Vaccines: MCV, MCV4-D, MCV4-CRM.
Mumps: This virus mainly affects the saliva glands between the ear and jaw. The symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and swollen and tender salivary glands. Vaccines: measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough): This illness is caused by bacteria that affect the lungs; it is spread through coughing or sneezing. A person with Pertussis develops a severe cough that usually lasts four to six weeks and can be very serious in infants. Vaccines: Diphtheria-Tetanus-and-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, and the Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis (Tdap) vaccine.
Pneumococcal Disease: This infection is caused by bacteria that can cause pneumonia, bloodstream infections and even meningitis. This infection kills more people in the United States than all vaccine-preventable diseases combined. The infection is treatable with antibiotics, but is becoming more resistant to antibiotics. Vaccines: PCV as early as 6 weeks, & PPSV as early as 2 years.
Polio: Polio is caused by a virus that lives in the intestines and throat. Polio was eliminated from the United States in 1979, but is still present in some developing countries. Vaccine: IPV, usually given to children at 2, 4, and 6 months. A booster dose is given at 4-6 years of age.
Rabies: A virus that affects the nervous system. Usually spread by an infected animal biting another animal or person. Although there is no cure after symptoms of the disease appear, a series of shots is recommended after exposure to the saliva will prevent rabies.
Rotavirus: An infection that causes severe diarrhea, vomiting and fever that can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and death. Vaccine: RV1, RV5.
Rubella (German Measles): A virus that causes a severe rash. If a pregnant woman is not immune, the fetus can contract congenital rubella syndrome. Vaccine: MMR, MMRV.
Shingles (Herpes Zoster): Shingles is an extremely painful infection triggered by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Vaccine: Zoster, recommended for adults over the age of 60.
Tetanus (Lockjaw): Bacterial disease that affects the nervous system. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing and stiffness and/or pain in the neck muscles, shoulders or back. As a result of widespread immunizations, tetanus is now a rare disease. Vaccine: DT, DTaP, Td, Tdap.
If you have a suspect or confirmed vaccine preventable disease, please report to the Hays County Epidemiologist.
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